Deciduous tree to c. 25 m, usually round-topped; bark on old trees deeply fissured, greyish-white; young shoots densely tomentose to glabrescent, light brownish to reddish-brown; buds c. 4 mm, tomentose or glabrescent, surrounded by persistent c. 1 cm stipules, rarely deciduous. Leaves distributed over shoots, ± oblong-elliptic in outline, very variable, 5.5-14 x 2.5-9 cm, from simple with entire small shallow lobes to deeply pinnatilobed with or without secondary lobes; lobes 4-9, mucronulate, veins conspicuous, intercalary veins often present; indumentum beneath usually densely stellate-pubescent, pale green to greenish-white, above with many stellate hairs regularly dispersed over surface, rarely subglabrous, dark green; petiole 3-20 mm. Peduncle stout, to 8 mm. Fruit maturing in second year. Cupule hemispherical or cyathiform, inside diam. c. 20 mm, yellowish-brown; scales linear subulate, irregularly spreading to reflexed, to 12 mm, pubescent. Acorn enclosed to ½ exserted, ± flat-topped, apically pubescent. Fr. 8-9. In mixed and deciduous forest with other Quercus spp. , Carpinus, Fagus, Castanea, Pinus nigra, P. brutia, P. pinea, or forming pure stands, nr s.l.-1500 m.
1. Leaves pinnatilobed with or without secondary lobes var. cerris
1. Leaves simple with shallow lobes var. austriaca